Many railroads now designate those cars as "shoving platforms" rather than "caboose". As noted above they are used when a long reverse move is made and a crewmember has to protect the move. I suspect, but can't say absolutely, that the change in name is due to various regulations which specifically apply to a "caboose" such as safety glazing on the windows. Also possible may be union agreements which require stoves, seats and other amenities to be provided in a "caboose".
Also some private companies, and also the military, still have cars which we would call a "caboose" but may be considered "rider cars". These are used for people accompanying special shipments such as oversize generators, transformers, or specialized military or nuclear moves.